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1、The Blackwell Companionto the Hebrew BibleBlackwell Companions to ReligionThe Blackwell Companions to Religion series presents a collection of the mostrecent scholarship and knowledge about world religions.Each volume drawstogether newly commissioned essays by distinguished authors in the field,andi

2、s presented in a style which is accessible to undergraduate students,as well asscholars and the interested general reader.These volumes approach the subjectin a creative and forward-thinking style,providing a forum in which leadingscholars in the field can make their views and research available to

3、a wideraudience.Published1.The Blackwell Companion to JudaismEdited by Jacob Neusner and Alan J.Avery-Peck2.The Blackwell Companion to Sociology of ReligionEdited by Richard K.Fenn3.The Blackwell Companion to the Hebrew BibleEdited by Leo G.PerdueForthcomingThe Blackwell Companion to Political Theol

4、ogyEdited by William T.Cavanaugh and Peter ScottThe Blackwell Companion to HinduismEdited by Gavin FloodThe Blackwell Companion to Religious EthicsEdited by Charles Hallisey and William SchweikerThe Blackwell Companion to Postmodern TheologyEdited by Graham WardThe Blackwell Companion to TheologyEdi

5、ted by Gareth JonesThe Blackwell Companion to the Study of ReligionEdited by Robert A.SegalThe Blackwell Companionto the Hebrew BibleEdited byLeo G.PerdueBrite Divinity SchoolTexas Christian UniversityCopyright Blackwell Publishers Ltd 2001Editorial matter and arrangement copyright Leo G.Perdue 2001

6、The moral right of Leo G.Perdue to be identified as author of the Editorial Material hasbeen asserted in accordance with the Copyright,Designs and Patents Act 1988.First published 20012 4 6 8 10 9 7 5 3 1Blackwell Publishers Ltd108 Cowley RoadOxford OX4 1JFUKBlackwell Publishers Inc.350 Main StreetM

7、alden,Massachusetts 02148USAAll rights reserved.Except for the quotation of short passages for the purposes of criticismand review,no part of this publication may be reproduced,stored in a retrieval system,ortransmitted,in any form or by any means,electronic,mechanical,photocopying,recording or othe

8、rwise,without the prior permission of the publisher.Except in the United States of America,this book is sold subject to the condition that itshall not,by way of trade or otherwise,be lent,resold,hired out,or otherwise circulatedwithout the publishers prior consent in any form of binding or cover oth

9、er than that inwhich it is published and without a similar condition including this condition beingimposed on the subsequent purchaser.British Library Cataloguing in Publication DataA CIP catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publicati

10、on DataThe Blackwell companion to the Hebrew Bible/edited by Leo G.Perdue.p.cm.(Blackwell companions to religion)Includes bibliographical references and index.ISBN 0631210717(hardcover:alk.paper)1.Bible.O.T.Criticism,interpretation,etc.I.Perdue,Leo G.II.Series.BS1171.3 B532001221.6dc2100069786Typese

11、t in 10.5 on 12.5 pt Photinaby Graphicraft Limited,Hong KongPrinted in Great Britain by T.J.International,Padstow,CornwallThis book is printed on acid-free paper.ContentsContributorsviiiPreface:The Hebrew Bible in Current ResearchxPart IThe Hebrew Bible in Modern Study11Preparatory Issues in Approac

12、hing Biblical TextsAntony F.Campbell,SJ32Methods of Modern Literary CriticismDavid Jobling193Social Scientific ApproachesCharles E.Carter36Part IIIsraelite and Early Jewish History594Early Israel and the Rise of the Israelite MonarchyCarol Meyers615The History of Israel in the Monarchic PeriodLeslie

13、 J.Hoppe876Exile,Restoration,and Colony:Judah in the Persian EmpireRobert P.Carroll102Part IIIArchaeology of Ancient Israel and Early Judaism1177Archaeology and the History of IsraelWilliam G.Dever1198Biblical and Syro-Palestinian ArchaeologyWilliam G.Dever127Part IVThe Religious and Social World of

14、 Ancient Israeland Early Judaism1499CanaanDennis Pardee15110The Household in Ancient Israel and Early JudaismJoseph Blenkinsopp16911Archaeology,the Israelite Monarchy,and theSolomonic TempleWilliam G.Dever18612Schools and Literacy in Ancient Israel and Early JudaismAndr Lemaire207Part VOld Testament

15、 Theology21913Modern Approaches to Old Testament TheologyHenning Graf Reventlow22114Symmetry and Extremity in the Images of yhwhWalter Brueggemann24115Theological Anthropology in the Hebrew BiblePhyllis A.Bird25816The Community of God in the Hebrew BibleR.E.Clements27617Old Testament EthicsBruce C.B

16、irch293Part VIThe Torah30918Creation and Redemption in the TorahRolf Rendtorff31119Law and Narrative in the PentateuchCalum Carmichael321viCONTENTSPart VIIThe Prophets33520Former Prophets:The Deuteronomistic HistoryHermann Spieckermann33721Latter Prophets:The Major ProphetsKlaus Koch35322Latter Prop

17、hets:The Minor ProphetsJames L.Crenshaw369Part VIIIThe Writings38323Narrative Texts:Chronicles,Ezra,and NehemiahRalph W.Klein38524The PsalterErhard S.Gerstenberger40225Wisdom LiteratureKatharine J.Dell41826Apocalyptic LiteratureJohn J.Collins432Author Index448Scripture Index459CONTENTSviiContributor

18、sLeo G.Perdue is Professor of Hebrew Bible and President of Brite DivinitySchool,Texas Christian University,Fort Worth,Texas.Bruce C.Birch is Dean and Professor of Biblical Theology at Wesley Theolo-gical Seminary,Washington,D.C.Phyllis A.Bird is retired Professor of Old Testament Interpretation at

19、Garrett-Evangelical Theological Seminary,Evanston,Illinois.Joseph Blenkinsopp is John A.OBrian Professor Emeritus of Biblical Studies,University of Notre Dame,Notre Dame,Indiana.Walter Brueggemann is Professor of Old Testament at Columbia TheologicalSeminary,Decatur,Georgia.Antony F.Campbell is Prof

20、essor of Old Testament at Jesuit Theological Col-lege,Melbourne,Australia.Calum Carmichael is Professor of Comparative Literature,Cornell University,Ithaca,New York.Robert P.Carroll,who died in 2000,was Professor of Hebrew Bible,TheFaculty of Divinity,The University of Glasgow,Glasgow,Scotland.Charl

21、es E.Carter is Associate Professor of Religious Studies at Seton HallUniversity,South Orange,New Jersey.R.E.Clements is Professor Emeritus of Old Testament Studies at Kings College,University of London,England.John J.Collins is Holmes Professor of Old Testament at Yale Divinity School,New Haven,Conn

22、ecticut.James L.Crenshaw is Robert L.Flowers Professor of Old Testament at DukeUniversity,Durham,North Carolina.Katharine J.Dell is Lecturer in Old Testament at Cambridge University,Cam-bridge,England.William G.Dever is Professor of Near Eastern Archaeology and Anthropologyat the University of Arizo

23、na,Tucson,Arizona.Erhard S.Gerstenberger is Professor Emeritus of Old Testament,EvangelicalTheology,Philipps University Marburg,Marburg,Germany.Leslie J.Hoppe is Professor of Old Testament Studies at Catholic TheologicalUnion,Chicago,Illinois.David Jobling is Professor of Hebrew Bible at St.Andrews

24、College,Saskatoon,Canada.Ralph W.Klein is Professor of Old Testament at Lutheran School of Theologyat Chicago,Chicago,Illinois.Klaus Koch is Professor Emeritus of Old Testament and History of AncientNear Eastern Religions,at the University of Hamburg,Hamburg,Germany.Andr Lemaire is Professor at cole

25、 Pratique des Hautes tudes,The Sorbonne,Paris,France.Carol Meyers is Professor of Biblical Studies and Archaeology at Duke Univer-sity,Durham,North Carolina.Dennis Pardee is Professor of Northwest Semitic Philology at the Universityof Chicago,Chicago,Illinois.Rolf Rendtorff is Professor Emeritus of

26、Old Testament at the University ofHeidelberg,Germany.Henning Graf Reventlow is retired Professor of Old Testament,University ofthe Ruhr,Bochum,Germany.Hermann Spieckermann is Professor of Old Testament,Theological Faculty,Georg-August-Universitt,Gttingen,Germany.CONTRIBUTORSixXPREFACE:THE HEBREW BIB

27、LE IN CURRENT RESEARCHPreface:The Hebrew Bible inCurrent ResearchThis collection of twenty-six essays provides a coherent,up-to-date introduc-tion to the major areas of Old Testament biblical scholarship.The essays,writ-ten by leading scholars who hail from six different countries,are placed intoeig

28、ht major parts:IThe Hebrew Bible in Modern StudyIIIsraelite and Early Jewish HistoryIIIArchaeology of Ancient Israel and Early JudaismIVThe Religious and Social World of Ancient Israel and Early JudaismVOld Testament TheologyVIThe TorahVIIThe ProphetsVIIIThe Writings.These essays provide the student

29、 of the Hebrew Bible with basic introductionsto each of these areas as they have developed in present research.The essaysrepresent both the older methods of historical criticism and newer ones thathave developed in more recent times.The Hebrew Bible in Modern StudyDuring the past generation,biblical

30、 research has experienced the addition ofnewer approaches,at times even major transformations in regard to methods,discoveries,and insights.The first essay,“Preparatory Issues in ApproachingBiblical Texts,”written by Antony F.Campbell of Melbourne,Australia,con-centrates primarily on the important f

31、eatures of the historical criticism that stilldominates most of biblical scholarship.His is a critical overview that points tothe strengths and weaknesses of each approach to biblical study.He provideshelpful textual examples that illustrate each approach.Campbell submits thatthe expression“historic

32、al-critical method”is itself misleading.“Critical”refers toa“state of intellectual awareness,”a“critical spirit”that must be present in thetask of interpretation of biblical texts.“Method,”by contrast,is an inappropriateterm,for it implies a series of steps to take in interpreting texts.For Campbell

33、,one begins by establishing the elusive“boundaries”of the text to be interpreted,not always an easy task,since it is not always clear where a text begins andends.“Text Criticism”seeks to sort out the various readings of textual witnessesin different languages(especially Hebrew,Greek,Aramaic,Syriac,a

34、nd Latin)and to determine which is the best reading to follow in a particular instanceand the variety of readings that affect the meaning of a text.“Source Criticism,”or better,“Origin Criticism,”refers to diverse backgrounds,dates,and meaningsfor various sources and biblical passages.“Form Criticis

35、m”refers to an approachin which social settings are thought to give rise to particular genres of writingthat contain specific features,how these features may relate to each other,andhow they operate in concert to communicate meaning.“Tradition History”refers to the attempt to trace the history of va

36、rious religious traditions central toIsraelite faith and practice.“Editing History”indicates the views of redactorsexpressed in their editing of various texts.Taken as a whole,these approacheswill not yield the same results,depending on the interpreters who use them.Nevertheless,Campbell submits tha

37、t these approaches will give shape to thedifferent procedures and the common matrix for interpreting the texts presentin the Hebrew corpus.The second essay in this initial selection on modern study is written by DavidJobling of Saskatoon,Canada.He focuses on the more recent methods of literarycritic

38、ism that derive from Departments of English and comparative literature.Jobling distinguishes between traditional and non-traditional advocates of liter-ary criticism.Traditionalists focus on literature understood to be the“classics”of a society and attempt to provide the“correct”meaning of these tex

39、ts.Non-traditionalists point out that the“classics”or the texts of the“canon”often omitthe voices of the marginalized and that their interpreters who practice traditionalmethodology have largely been white and male.New literary criticism seeks toaccomplish two strategies:the expansion of the culture

40、s collection of classics toinclude marginal writings;and related to this,the reading of texts from contextsthat are socially conservative.One effect of new literary criticism is“intertex-tuality,”i.e.reading“texts”that include literature or even a larger social systemin ways that bring new understan

41、dings to both.However,new literary effortscannot expand the“canon”of the Hebrew Bible,meaning that they have to beapplied to the existing canonical texts.More recent“literary”readings of thebiblical texts include structuralism,which compares the ways that people pro-duce texts with how they understa

42、nd sentences in ordinary language;rhetoricalcriticism,which examines the close literary reading of a text;postructuralismand ideological criticism,which attempt to examine the political commitmentsPREFACE:THE HEBREW BIBLE IN CURRENT RESEARCHxiof the biblical texts and its interpreters;and deconstruc

43、tionism,which indicateshow texts fail to claim to prove what they assert,make arbitrary choices betweenpossibilities that cannot be decided,and assume to exist what they seek todemonstrate.Feminism has also come into play in reading texts as have Afro-American“womanist”criticisms.These last-mentione

44、d discourses engage in“ideological criticism”that seeks to detect and undermine social oppressionsthat must be sustained by“false consciousness.”The oppressor and the oppressedmust be convinced that what they believe belongs to the“natural”order ofthings.While some liberation movements have embraced

45、 deconstruction of theother modes of postmodern analysis mentioned above,because they determinethe ideologies at work in texts and their interpreters,others reject these newapproaches since they appear to deny all meaning,including that whichliberationists attempt to construct.More recent contributi

46、ons of non-traditionalor counter-reading approaches include newer developments in feminist criti-cism,folklore,fantasy literature,and autobiographical criticism that point tohow the study of ones own experience shapes ones readings of texts.Charles E.Carter of South Orange,New Jersey,undertakes to w

47、rite a compre-hensive survey of the“social scientific”study of the Hebrew Bible.He notes thatbiblical scholarship has made uses of models from cultural anthropology andmacrosociology to understand the cultural matrices that gave rise to the Bible.Following a history of the developments of social sci

48、entific methodology,theessay turns to examine the basic features of models and methods.Carter notesthat all social sciences are at heart comparative.However,perhaps the greatestweakness often noted is that the social data gathered to compare to the biblicalcultural reality originate mostly from rece

49、nt societies and are not applicable toancient worlds so radically different than modern ones.These methods need totake these differences into account,and they should consider the fact that bib-lical cultures were in flux,i.e.,they themselves often changed and were notmonolithic even in a particular

50、time frame.Social science models must exam-ine similar cultures,those of the Bible and those with which the Bible is com-pared,before any legitimate conclusions may be drawn.Ethnography is nowcommonly used to focus on premodern cultures to clarify practices and beliefsin dead societies,and to constr

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