2001年版美陆军格斗教材.pdf

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FM 3 25 150 FM 21 150 COMBATIVES HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION Approved for public release distribution is unlimited FM 3 25 150 FM 21 150 FIELD MANUAL HEADQUARTERS No 3 25 150 DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY WASHINGTON DC 18 January 2002 COMBATIVES TABLE OF CONTENTS Page PREFACE iv CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1 1 Definition of Combatives 1 1 1 2 Purposes of Combative Training 1 1 1 3 Basic Principles 1 1 1 4 Safety 1 2 CHAPTER 2 TRAINING Section I Train the Trainer 2 1 2 1 Responsibilities of Trainers 2 1 2 2 Safety Precautions 2 1 Section II Unit Training 2 2 2 3 Basic or One Station Unit Training 2 3 2 4 Unit Sustainment Training Program 2 4 Section III Training Areas 2 4 2 5 Training ations 2 4 2 6 Matted Room 2 5 2 7 Pit Construction 2 5 2 8 Bayonet Assault Course 2 6 Section IV Teaching Techniques 2 12 2 9 Warm Ups and Stretches 2 12 2 10 Crawl Walk and Run 2 18 2 11 Demonstrations 2 18 2 12 cution by the Numbers 2 19 2 13 cution at Combat Speed 2 19 2 14 Drills 2 19 2 15 Training Pads and Other Protective Equipment 2 19 DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION Approved for public release distribution is unlimited This publication supersedes FM 21 150 30 September 1992 i FM 3 25 150 Page CHAPTER 3 BASIC GROUND FIGHTING TECHNIQUES Section I Dominant Body Position 3 1 3 1 Back Mount 3 1 3 2 Front Mount 3 2 3 3 Guard 3 3 3 4 Side Control 3 4 Section II Basic Techniques 3 4 3 5 Body Positioning Moves 3 4 3 6 Finishing Moves 3 24 3 7 Drills 3 40 3 8 Defense Against Headlocks 3 41 CHAPTER 4 ADVANCED GROUND FIGHTING TECHNIQUES Section I Advanced Attacks 4 1 4 1 Advanced Body Positions 4 1 4 2 Pass the Guard 4 2 4 3 Attacks from the Mount 4 14 4 4 Attacks from the Back Mount 4 25 4 5 Attacks from the Guard 4 30 4 6 Knee Mount 4 41 4 7 Leg Attacks 4 52 Section II Strikes 4 57 4 8 Pass the Guard 4 57 4 9 Striking from Side Control 4 63 4 10 Defending Against Strikes in the Guard 4 65 CHAPTER 5 TAKEDOWNS AND THROWS 5 1 Breakfalls 5 1 5 2 Closing the Distance and Achieving the Clinch 5 4 5 3 Throw and Takedown Techniques 5 6 5 4 Defending Against Headlocks 5 13 5 5 Takedowns from Against a Wall 5 21 5 6 Double Leg Attack 5 24 5 7 Single Leg Attacks 5 28 5 8 Attacks from the Rear 5 31 CHAPTER 6 STRIKES 6 1 Arm Strikes 6 1 6 2 Punching Combinations 6 6 6 3 Kicks 6 6 6 4 Transition Between Ranges 6 9 ii FM 3 25 150 Page CHAPTER 7 HANDHELD WEAPONS Section I Offensive Techniques 7 1 7 1 Angles of Attack 7 1 7 2 Rifle with Fixed Bayonet 7 2 7 3 Bayonet Knife 7 23 7 4 Knife Against Rifle Sequence 7 24 7 5 Advanced Weapons Techniques and Training 7 28 Section II Field Expedient Weapons 7 29 7 6 Entrenching Tool 7 29 7 7 Three Foot Stick 7 33 7 8 Six Foot Pole 7 36 CHAPTER 8 STANDING DEFENSE Section I Unarmed Opponent 8 1 8 1 Defense Against Chokes 8 1 8 2 Defense Against Bear Hugs 8 7 Section II Armed Opponent 8 13 8 3 Defense Against Armed Opponent 8 13 8 4 Defense Against a Knife 8 14 8 5 Unarmed Defense Against a Rifle with Fixed Bayonet 8 22 CHAPTER 9 GROUP TACTICS Section I Lethal Force Scenarios 9 1 9 1 Range 9 1 9 2 Control 9 1 9 3 Finishing 9 1 Section II Restrictive Force Scenarios 9 2 9 4 Two Against One 9 2 9 5 Three Against Two 9 2 9 6 Parity 9 2 9 7 One Against Two 9 2 9 8 Two Against Three 9 3 APPENDIX A SITUATIONAL TRAINING A 1 APPENDIX B COMPETITIONS B 1 GLOSSARY Glossary 1 REFERENCES References 1 INDEX Index 1 iii FM 3 25 150 PREFACE This field manual contains ination and guidance pertaining to rifle bayonet fighting and hand to hand combat The hand to hand combat portion of this manual is divided into basic and advanced training This manual serves as a guide for instructors trainers and soldiers in the art of instinctive rifle bayonet fighting The proponent for this publication is the United States Army Infantry School Send comments and recommendations on DA 2028 Recommended Changes to Publications and Blank s directly to Commandant United States Army Infantry School ATTN ATSH RB Fort Benning GA 31905 5430 Unless this publication states otherwise masculine nouns and pronouns do not refer exclusively to men iv FM 3 25 150 FM 21 150 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Very few people have ever been killed with the bayonet or saber but the fear of having their guts explored with cold steel in the hands of battle maddened men has won many a fight PATTON 1 1 DEFINITION OF COMBATIVES Hand to hand combat is an engagement between two or more persons in an empty handed struggle or with hand held weapons such as knives sticks or projectile weapons that cannot be fired Proficiency in hand to hand combat is one of the fundamental building blocks for training the modern soldier 1 2 PURPOSES OF COMBATIVES TRAINING Soldiers must be prepared to use different levels of force in an environment where conflict may change from low intensity to high intensity over a matter of hours Many military operations such as peacekeeping missions or noncombatant evacuation may restrict the use of deadly weapons Hand to hand combatives training will save lives when an unexpected confrontation occurs More importantly combatives training helps to instill courage and self confidence With competence comes the understanding of controlled aggression and the ability to remain focused while under duress Training in combatives includes hard and arduous physical training that is at the same time mentally demanding and carries over to other military pursuits The overall effect of combatives training is The culmination of a successful physical fitness program enhancing individual and unit strength flexibility balance and cardiorespiratory fitness Building personal courage self confidence self discipline and esprit de corps 1 3 BASIC PRINCIPLES Underlying all combatives techniques are principles the hand to hand fighter must apply to successfully defeat an opponent The natural progression of techniques as presented in this manual will instill these principles into the soldier a Mental Calm During a fight a soldier must keep his ability to think He must not allow fear or anger to control his actions b Situational Awareness Things are often going on around the fighters that could have a direct impact on the outcome of the fight such as opportunity weapons or other personnel joining the fight c Suppleness A soldier cannot always count on being bigger and stronger than the enemy He should therefore never try to oppose the enemy in a direct test of strength Supple misdirection of the enemy s strength allows superior technique and fight strategy to overcome superior strength d Base Base refers to the posture that allows a soldier to gain leverage from the ground Generally a soldier must keep his center of gravity low and his base wide much like a pyramid 1 1 FM 3 25 150 e Dominant Body Position Position refers to the location of the fighter s body in relation to his opponent s A vital principle when fighting is to gain control of the enemy by controlling this relationship Before any killing or disabling technique can be applied the soldier must first gain and maintain one of the dominant body positions Chapter 3 Section I f Distance Each technique has a window of effectiveness based upon the amount of space between the two combatants The fighter must control the distance between himself and the enemy in order to control the fight g Physical Balance Balance refers to the ability to maintain equilibrium and to remain in a stable upright position h Leverage A fighter uses the parts of his body to create a natural mechanical advantage over the parts of the enemy s body By using leverage a fighter can have a greater effect on a much larger enemy 1 4 SAFETY The Army s combatives program has been specifically designed to train the most competent fighters in the shortest possible time in the safest possible manner a General Safety Precautions The techniques of Army combatives should be taught in the order presented in this manual They are arranged to not only give the natural progression of techniques but to present the more dangerous techniques after the soldiers have established a familiarity with the dynamics of combative techniques in general This will result in fewer serious injuries from the more dynamic moves b Supervision The most important safety consideration is proper supervision Because of the potentially dangerous nature of the techniques involved combatives training must always be conducted under the supervision of qualified leaders c Training Areas Most training should be conducted in an area with soft footing such as a grassy or sandy area If training mats are available they should be used A hard surface area is not appropriate for combatives training d Chokes Chokes are the best way to end a fight They are the most effective way to incapacitate an enemy and with supervision are also safe enough to apply in training exactly as on the battlefield e Joint Locks In order to incapacitate an enemy attacks should be directed against large joints such as the elbow shoulder or knee Attacks on most of these joints are very painful long before causing any injury which allows full force training to be conducted without significant risk of injury The exceptions are wrist attacks and twisting knee attacks The wrist is very easily damaged and twisting the knee does not become painful until it is too late Therefore these attacks should be taught with great care and should not be allowed in sparring or competitions f Striking Striking is an inefficient way to incapacitate an enemy Strikes are however an important part of an overall fight strategy and can be very effective in manipulating the opponent into unfavorable positions Striking can be practiced with various types of protective padding such as boxing gloves Defense can be practiced using reduced force blows Training should be continuously focused on the realities of fighting 1 2 FM 3 25 150 FM 21 150 CHAPTER 2 TRAINING This chapter discusses the trainer s role in teaching and sustaining effective hand to hand combat It also discusses unit training training areas teaching techniques and safety precautions that must be considered before conducting combatives training Section I TRAIN THE TRAINER Professional instruction is the key to success in combatives training Instructors must be physically fit and highly proficient in the demonstration and practical application of the skills They must review and be familiar with this manual Confidence enthusiasm and technical expertise are essential for success in teaching hand to hand combat Assistant instructors must also be properly trained to help supervise and demonstrate maneuvers Selecting the trainers is the first step in establishing an effective program 2 1 RESPONSIBILITIES OF TRAINERS Diligent effort is needed to perfect the various hand to hand combat techniques to apply them instinctively and to teach others to safely master them The following instructor responsibilities are the core of planning and cuting combatives training a Seek maximum efficiency with minimum effort Continually strive to reduce all unnecessary explanations movement and activity Streamline the training without compromising content efficiency or safety b Stress cooperation and technical mastery Promote suppleness and controlling aggression c Reinforce the details of each technique and provide positive feedback when warranted Use occasional humor to motivate soldiers but avoid degrading or insulting them d Ensure serviceable training aids are present in sufficient quantities for all soldiers being trained Ensure training areas are well maintained and free of dangerous obstructions e Ensure instructors and assistant instructors are well rehearsed and prepared before all training sessions Conduct instructor training at least five hours weekly to maintain a high skill level f Develop as many skilled combatives instructors for each unit as possible Instructor to soldier ratios should not exceed 1 instructor for 20 soldiers Encourage after duty training and education for instructors g Require strict discipline of all soldiers 2 2 SAFETY PRECAUTIONS To prevent injuries the instructor must consider the following safety precautions before conducting combatives training a Supervise all practical work closely and constantly Never leave a group unsupervised 2 1 FM 3 25 150 b Familiarize the soldiers with each maneuver by a complete explanation and demonstration before they attempt the moves c Do not allow the soldiers to get ahead of the instruction d Ensure the training partner offers no resistance but allows the maneuver to be freely cuted during the learning stages and while perfecting the techniques e Ensure there is adequate space between soldiers during all practical work for example allow at least an 8 foot square for each pair of soldiers f Ensure that soldiers empty their pockets and remove their jewelry and identification tags before training g Stress that only simulated strikes to vital points such as the head neck and groin area are to be cuted Soldiers may use light blows to other vulnerable areas however they must rcise caution at all times h Ensure that soldiers understand the use of both physical tapping and verbal signals to indicate to the partner when to stop the pressure in grappling and choking techniques i Make sure soldiers warm up and stretch properly before practical work j Teach and practice falls before conducting throws k Ensure that the soldier to be disarmed does not place his finger in the trigger guard during rifle and bayonet disarming l Make sure soldiers keep scabbards on knives and bayonets firmly attached to rifles while learning bayonet disarming s m Use bayonet scabbards or rubber knives during knife disarming training n If utilizing a sawdust pit inspect all sandbags on retaining wall before conduct of training to ensure that all bags are serviceable at least 75 percent full and that the entire retaining wall is covered with sandbags Any bag placed where personnel are likely to fall will be filled with the same consistency filler as the sawdust in the pit and will also provide a minimum of 6 inches of sawdust o Maintain a buffer zone of 6 feet from retainer wall and demonstration area during all training especially training requiring throws and takedowns by students p Rake the training pit to loosen sawdust and remove all sharp objects Properly inspect the pit so that all safety hazards are removed before instruction or demonstrations are cuted q Per inspections of the depth of sawdust with enough time before training to resurface the pit Remember that new sawdust will need to be raked and inspected for foreign objects that may cause injuries Section II UNIT TRAINING Entry level soldiers receive a training base in combatives during basic training and one station unit training OSUT Advanced individual training AIT commanders should review the training presented during basic training and as time permits expand into the more advance
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